Importantly, ERF‐related craniosynostosis appears to present later than other craniosynostosis syndromes, with a median age at presentation of 42 months among the probands. Searching a database with over 56,000 patients registered at the Hospital, 136 patients were found with a diagnosis of craniosynostosis syndromes (Table 1). Figure 20-1 A schematic drawing of a child’s skull with sagittal synostosis, in which growth of the skull is restricted in a plane perpendicular to the fused suture and elongated in a plane parallel to that fused suture. In: Cohen Jr MM, MacLean RE, eds. Prenatal diagnosis of fetal craniosynostosis was made at 32 weeks' gestation with closed coronal sutures. Craniosynostosis. CRANIAL ANATOMY. Craniosynostosis is a craniofacial abnormality observed in approximately 1:2,000 to 3,000 births worldwide, and can be associated with more than 130 different syndromes; however, it most commonly presents as an isolated abnormality. 1 Etiologically and morphologically, craniosynostosis is heterogeneous, often necessitating careful clinical and radiological evaluation to determine its cause. Table 2 summarizes the main clinical and molecular characteristics ... Crouzon syndrome is one of the most common of the craniosynostosis syndromes. (See "Craniosynostosis syndromes" and "Syndromes with craniofacial abnormalities".) The Impact of Sutural Synostosis on Directed Calvarial Growth. The most common syndromes include Apert Syndrome and Crouzon Syndrome.Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance have been described, but sporadic occurrence also is common. craniosynostosis syndromes having virtually identical patterns of skull fusion may carry widely different risks for neurodevelopmental deficits (see below). TABLE 1. Of the more than 150 craniosynostosis syndromes, Crouzon’s disease and Apert’s syndrome account for the majority of cases. Chapter 5 Craniosynostosis and Craniofacial Syndromes General Craniosynostosis Nomenclature and Information 1. Craniosynostosis: Abnormal fusion of cranial sutures leading to abnormal head shape • May lead to increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and developmental delay Increased ICP can be diagnosed by papilledema and “thumb printing” on radiographic studies. The family history eventually led to the diagnosis of Saethre–Chotzen syndrome. Otologic manifestations of craniosynostosis syndromes. Craniosynostosis is defined as the premature closure of a cranial suture or sutures, leading to alterations in head shape. Common genetic syndromes associated with craniosynostosis Genetic syndrome Gene Chromosome Inheritance Involved The diagnosis of craniosynostosis relies on … Therefore, FGFR2-related craniosynostosis syndromes ... Table 1. It is a common physical finding in children, affecting about 1 in 2500. A positive family history is present in up to 40% of cases, with genetic syndromes accounting for at least 50% of those cases. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, and surgical management of craniosynostosis are reviewed here. Specific syndromes associated with craniofacial abnormalities are discussed separately. THE IMPACT OF SUTURAL SYNOSTOSIS ON DIRECTED CALVARIAL GROWTH Single sutural synostosis results in predictable changes in skull shape (Fig 2, Table 1). (From Sulica RL, Grunfast KM. 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