Some of them reflect wider, uncontrollable forces; others are open, relatively, to manipulation. He begins to handle everything himself, not trusting anyone and thereby makes it impossible for subordinates to learn and grow. 1. (7) For Proper Delegation Motivation through Positive Incentives be Given to Subordinate: This will be helpful in accepting the responsibility happily and can show excellent performances. He should define clearly the objectives to be achieved and the functions to be performed by delegating the authority. Incentives may be monetary or non-monetary. i. When managers delegate authority to subordinates in the hierarchy, subordinates further delegate the tasks informally to people at the same level in other units. To understand why a manager should delegate authority, the principle of unity of command should be strictly followed. Lack of Credit – When multiple people work on a single project the credit of the work often gets distributed. Delegation is an important managerial skill requiring a manager to: (i) Size up his total workload in operational terms. It is the art of how and what manager delegates to subordinates. All these problems are considered as barriers to a delegation of authority. Also, a certain authority is delegated to the subordinate to the extent, which is sufficient to accomplish the assigned responsibility. Managers motivate the subordinates to work with zeal and enthusiasm. 3. There are certain conditions in a business system, both internal and environmental, those evoke tendencies toward centralization and work against decentralization and delegation of authority and responsibility. In a controlled system many facets of enterprise operations and decision are bound by regulatory measures and forms of a prescriptive nature. B may however hold C accountable and may take the severest action against him to the point of termination of his services because of negligence of duty. Elements of Delegation of Authority 3. He makes sure that subordinates willingly contribute to the job assigned so that organisational goals can be optimally achieved. Thus it means an obligation to carry out certain activities with accountability for performance. Additionally, he is forced to set up a control system so that the subordinates’ action can be monitored. Principles of delegation of authority 1. It is the division of authority and powers downwards to the subordinate; the act of using the power of other people's help. When a manager delegates authority, he must ensure that the delegation is clear in terms of its contents, scope, functional relations, and assignments. • Each delegation should include the source of the delegated authority, a description of or reference to the delegated authority, limitations including restrictions on re- delegation, and a reference to any existing delegations that will be modified, amended, or superseded by the action. Why should I take on more work? i. The fear of a sub-ordinates advancement also affects the manager’s ability to delegate authority effectively. While, in a situation as this, overall and absolute decentralization is constrained, there is nothing to prevent flow of delegation of authority at the top down the scalar chain. The following guidelines have been advanced by different writers to help managers delegate effectively. Thus, authority and responsibility delegated to sales manager is shared by him with managers of other departments working at the same level. Sometimes, the lack of coordination between subordinate and superior also works a barrier of delegation. exaction of responsibility for its accomplishment. Delegation of authority refers to the subdivision and sub-allocation of powers to the subordinates in order to achieve effective results. The barriers to delegation, as we have seen, are purely psychological and can be reduced through improved communication between managers and subordinates leading to better understanding. Delegation of Authority – Can Both Authority and Responsibility be Delegated? Once requirement of the job is defined, responsibility of different individuals is determined in terms of tasks assigned to them. The nodal points of decision and control remain in the hands of a few. Easy to Ask-‘It is easier to ask the boss’: Wise decisions are products of hard mental work. Balance of Authority with Responsibility 4. Principle of parity of authority and responsibility – parity of authority and responsibility is one of the important principles of delegation of authority. (h) Incapable hands manning the executive positions. Prevent illegitimate usurpation of authority by establishing broad controls. In absence of coordination, the effective delegation is not possible. What to delegate and when to delegate are two ticklish questions which a delegator has to answer to himself within the framework of the organisation? Koontz and O’ Donnell have listed some personal qualities that can contribute to effective delegation. Factors Affecting 9. It is an art, not science – When delegator delegates to subordinates, it does not necessarily mean that subordinates will perform those tasks well. It is the division of authority and powers downwards to the subordinate; the act of using the power of other. But the important psychology is that by their nature executives have no confidence in their subordinates. Only the deserving candidate should be given additional responsibilities. It is the answerability for performance of the assigned duties. The decision may be retained at a high level regardless of the level of employees concerned. Principle of delegation by results expected. Accountability is the liability created for the use of authority. 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