In the fall and winter, they switch over to grains, seeds, bark, roots, and over-wintering fruits (they are said to be very fond of cranberries). A weed-free barrier on the outside of the fence will increase its effectiveness. Voles. With age, the droppings lose the green coloring and turn brown or gray. That is why the Tent setup with the Vole Control Bait Stationis effective in controlling them, because they feel safe while they eat the bait. But this was the first time I’d seen a living vole. Voles dig many short, shallow burrows and make underground nests of grass, stems, and leaves. Meadow voles are more widely distributed, but prairie voles are more common in prairie areas. Northern short-tailed shrews Blarina brevicauda are a major predator of meadow voles in the eastern portions of North America. When voles aren’t numerous or when the population is concentrated in a small area, trapping can be effective. Negative impacts of this behavior may include an increased risk of predation, but the “wandering” voles have been shown to have an overall higher rate of both survival and reproduction. Meadow Vole: It is the most widely spread vole species in the United States. Its exceptional tail makes up more than 30% of its total length. You can locate the runways by pulling back overhanging ground cover. Voles make tiny tunnels underneath the grass. Vole numbers fluctuate from year to year, and under favorable conditions, their populations can increase rapidly. It is possible for a female meadow vole to have 12 litters a year in areas of mild climate. Weeds, heavy mulch, and dense vegetative cover encourage voles by providing food and protection from predators and environmental stresses. Generally, spot treating—placing bait in a specific place, such as a runway—is the preferred method of baiting, but in areas of heavy ground cover or if the area you are treating is quite large, broadcasting might be a better option if the label allows it. Coop.
The California vole, M. californicus, is the most widespread vole in the state, found in the Owens and Central valleys and nearly the entire length of the coastal range. A plastic cylinder protects the trunk of this young tree from vole damage. Many predators including coyotes, foxes, badgers, weasels, cats, gulls, and especially hawks and owls eat voles. By a wood duck and meadow vole are then eaten by a wood duck and meadow vole are eaten! They also crave the seeds from pine cones and fresh grass and sedges. Voles mainly eat stems and blades of lawn grass—so it’s usually vole tunnels that you’ll see near the surface of the yard. It also digs burrows, where it stores food for However, in most cases predators can’t keep vole populations below damaging levels. For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. After all, they are closely-related rodents. Vole species form the subfamily Arvicolinae with the lemmings and the muskrats. They inhabit a range of habitats from grassy fields (and lawns) to open woodlands and marshes. All rights reserved. Nat. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. There are approximately 155 different vole species. The tendency of this species to “wander,” then, has some significantly positive consequences. Koivula and Korpimäki concluded that odor from vole scent posed a greater risk to voles than did ultraviolet visibility by avian predators. Their long, coarse fur is blackish brown to grayish brown. Identification. Meadow voles can carry a variety of potentially serious human pathogens. 2006. Its range extends from central Alaska eastward and south across Canada and the United States all the way to the east coast. Mammalia: information (1) Mammalia: pictures (1065) Mammalia: specimens (2905) Mammalia: sounds (5) Order Rodentia rodents. They are prolific breeders, with females able to churn out a new litter every three weeks or so. Small mammals such as meadow voles exhibit complex and puzzling multiannual - population cycles. 7. Meadow voles eat many different types of foods. In some areas their numbers are cyclical, reaching peak numbers every 3 to 6 years before dropping back to low levels. Wildlife Pest Control around Gardens and Homes, © 2019 Regents of the University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Meadow voles tend to be active at night during the summer and in the daytime during the winter. PDF reader. Burrow fumigants such as gas cartridges aren’t effective for controlling voles, because their burrow system is shallow and has numerous open holes. The meadow mouse serves an important niche in the link between green plants and carnivorous animals. Birds not usually considered predators of mice do take voles; examples include gulls (Larus spp. Females mate as early as one month old, and some voles give birth to more than 17 litters in one year.  Primaparous females had fewer young per litter than multiparous females. Voles. Predators such as coyotes, foxes, badgers, weasels, owls, and hawks feed on meadow voles; however, predation is rarely, if ever, a major factor in controlling a rapidly increasing vole population. An important food source for predators from fishers and bobcats to coyotes and even blue jays, meadow voles have an almost year-round ability to reproduce. Animalia: pictures (7319) Animalia: specimens (3017) Animalia: sounds (165) Animalia: maps (42) Class Mammalia mammals. In rare cases, where there is … 1994. Predators can have an effect on these cycles though the precise relationship is not completely understood. Kingdom Animalia animal kingdom. The montane vole, M. montanus, inhabits northeastern California and the eastern Sierra slope. When fully grown they can measure 5 to 8 inches long, including the tail. You also can try a dog, but not all dogs find searching for voles an exciting pastime. Because populations won’t increase indefinitely, one alternative is to do nothing, and let nature limit the voles. Thank you for visiting Penn State New Kensington. Meadow voles — Microtus pennsylvanicus — are the most common vole in North America with a range from Alaska to the Canadian Maritimes and south to New Mexico and Georgia. Females may mate almost immediately after giving birth, and, so, after weaning one litter (which takes 21 days), she may then have another. Meadow vole populations peak at 2-5 year intervals.  Description: The back of the meadow vole is very dark brown and black colored with very course hairs. Bury the bottom of the protective device below the soil surface to prevent voles from digging beneath it. Predators can have an effect on these cycles though the precise relationship is not completely understood. Vole Diet: Plants! Last winter with its lingering snow cover was ideal for voles to live and feed under the snow with little predator impact. A minimum width of 15 feet is recommended, but even that can be ineffective when vole numbers are high. Although the field vole is numerous, it is still important to consider conservation methods and maintain biodiversity within habitats because field voles are so important to owls and other predators. Voles are small rodents that grow to 3–9 in (7.6–22.9 cm), depending on the species. Mammalia: information (1) In areas with winter snow, voles will burrow in and through the snow to the surface.
Meadow voles are most abundant in the open field and shrub ecosystems of early successional stages of disturbed ecosystems. June 30, 2014
Most carnivorous animals that inhabit the same areas as these voles prey on them. However, voles seldom live longer than 12 months. Meadow Vole. In addition, one field study demonstrated that when vole scent was added to vole habitat, predation by small mustelid predators increased compared with that in control habitats (Koivula and Korpimäki, 2001). Predation and Disease
These voles also accelerate the dispersal of vital mycorrhizal fungi, and, thus, influence the survival and growth rates of many important species of trees. Commercial pest control operators can use the fumigant aluminum phosphide under very limited conditions. Meadow voles spend most of their lives above the ground, but can also make shallow tunnels in the ground. In the more northern parts of their range, breeding “only” extends from March to November, and, so, a maximum of only 8 litters is possible. document.write('');
2nd ed. Range. Voles are mostly herbivorous, feeding on a variety of grasses, herbaceous plants, bulbs, and tubers. Many predators including coyotes, foxes, badgers, weasels, cats, gulls, and especially hawks and owls eat voles. A female meadow vole is reproductively mature at 20 days of age. Effective, immediate action usually involves baiting or trapping and habitat modification. Giusti, G. A. Voles can breed any time of year, but the peak breeding period is spring. An important food source for predators from fishers and bobcats to coyotes and even blue jays, meadow voles have an almost year-round ability to … The meadow vole is active year-round, usually at night. An important food source for predators from fishers and bobcats to coyotes and even blue jays, meadow voles have an almost year-round ability to … Anticoagulants, often referred to as multiple-feeding baits, interfere with an animal’s blood-clotting mechanisms, eventually leading to death. user = "dys100";
Neb. The prairie vole’s tail is slightly less than twice the length of the hind foot. document.write('Web Coordinator' + '
' + '');
A female vole will reach sexual maturity in around thirteen days – that’s less than two weeks. Add to that the fact that voles’ gestation period is 16 – 24 days, depending on the vole’s exact sub-species and external circumstances, and a female vole can have her first litter as early as the end of her first month of life. Its range extends farther south along the Atlantic coast. Ingles, L. G. 1965. Because voles can carry infectious pathogens or parasites, don’t handle them without rubber gloves; you can use a plastic bag slipped over your hand and arm as a glove. In the spring and summer, they primarily consume living plants (grasses, sedges, plantain, and a wide variety of “weeds”). You’ll want to frequently check protective devices to make sure meadow mice haven’t gnawed through or dug beneath the cylinders and are hiding inside the tree guard while they feed on the tree. 1982. Many predators consume meadow voles. Trap placement is crucial. Size: Weighing on average 1.5 oz (48 g) the Meadow Vole is a small rodent that is around 5 to 7 inches long (128 to 195 mm) with a tail that is over 40% of their body size. pp. However, in most cases predators can’t keep vole populations below damaging levels. They range in length from 128–195 mm including the tail, and average 44 grams in weight. This animal is also known as the meadow mouse. Scientific Name: Microtus pennsylvanicus
Overhead grass cover is essential. You can cut out both ends of individual milk cartons, tin cans, or plastic soda bottles and fit them over small plants. Active during the winter, they can strip the bark of trees in yards, particularly fruit trees. Their presence and activities greatly influence the rate and direction of subsequent successional stages. Meadow Vole. Oakland: Univ. Meadow Vole This small creature, also known as the field mouse, measures 3-5 inches long with a 1-2 inch hairless tail. Contact UC IPM, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, © 2019 Regents of the University of California With an average litter size of four to six pups, every four weeks between March and December, voles fuel the New England food web. Meadow voles will eat flesh and are cannibalistic, especially on new born young. In the wintertime, the vole's life changes. Although voles spend considerable time aboveground and you occasionally can see them scurrying about, they spend most of their time below ground in their burrow system. The reproduction cycle of voles is so fast it sounds unbelievable. UC IPM Home > PDF: To display a PDF document, you may need to use a Voles will gnaw the bark of fruit trees including almond, apple, avocado, cherry, citrus, and olive. Due to digging, Meadow voles contribute to aeration of the soil. Owls, hawks, snakes, weasels and red foxes feed on voles, who hide from predators in burrows and tunnels. Gnaw marks about 1/8 inch wide and 3/8 inch long in irregular patches and various angles along with other signs including droppings, runways, and burrows indicate vole damage. They are very similar, and methods for controlling them are mostly the same. When broadcasting bait, be sure to spread it evenly over the infested area. Protecting Your Garden from Animal Damage. If you remove this protection, their numbers will decline. Their greatest benefit to Alaskans is as the prey base for a vast number of predators which Alaskans enjoy viewing, trapping and using. Meadow voles are active during all times of the day but are mostly nocturnal during summer and diurnal during winter. Feeding upon grass, they recycle the nutrients, found in the grass, through defecation. Voles seldom stray from their runways, so set traps along these routes. The rodents generally prefer to live in moist areas with plenty of grass and groundcover where they can scavenge for food without being spotted by predators. Support or brace these devices, so they can’t be pushed over or pressed against the trunk. Meadow mouse runways connect numerous, shallow burrows. Behavior. Vole damage to tree trunks normally occurs from a few inches aboveground to a few inches below ground. A 4-foot-diameter circle around the base of young trees or vines that is free of vegetation or a buffer strip 4 feet or more along a row of trees can reduce problems, because voles prefer not to feed in the open. Both the Microtus and red-backed voles form the base of the food chain for many animals in Alaska. The impacts of meadow voles on their ecosystems are significant. Studies of food supplementation in small mammals often result in significant increases in population density. They are protected this way from predators from above, like hawks. Meadow voles eat runways through turf and strip bark off of trees and shrubs below the snow during the winter. Since the relative abundance of adults and subadults changed during the study, the predation suffered by each age class at different times was examined. In the winter, a good snow cover is important for both thermal insulation and protective concealment. Using 25 years farming and food manufacture experience to help our farmers grow, and help our customers thrive. The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) and woodland vole (M. pinetorum) are found statewide. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Electromagnetic or ultrasonic devices and flooding also are ineffective against voles. Take necessary measures to ensure the safety of children, pets, and nontarget animals, and follow all product label instructions carefully. You must apply them before damage occurs. Small mammals such as meadow voles exhibit complex and puzzling multiannual - population cycles. They can become aggressive when trapped. The meadow vole, sometimes called the field mouse or meadow mouse, is a North American vole found across Canada, Alaska and the northern United States. 1. Their most common predators include owls, hawks, red foxes Vulpes vulpes , coyotes Canis latrans , bobcats Lynx rufus , and snakes. Females mate as early as one month old, and some voles give birth to more than 17 litters in one year. An important food source for predators from fishers and bobcats to coyotes and even blue jays, meadow voles have an almost year-round ability to reproduce. Cats are a natural predator for voles, and the rodents stay clear of any property that has cats nearby. A. Chapman and G. A. Feldhamer, eds. are meadow voles omnivores TAGS: Direct control methods include trapping, fencing, and poisoning; trapping and fencing are of limited effectiveness. Close cutting of ground cover around fields or orchards can help keep them away. Meadow voles — Microtus pennsylvanicus — are the most common vole in North America with a … The wider the cleared strip, the less apt voles will be to cross and become established in gardens. Voles (Meadow Mice). Hawks, owls, herons, crows, and blue jays along with skunks, weasels, cats, raccoons, and shrews all hunt and eat meadow voles. Wire fences at least 12 inches above the ground with a mesh size of 1/4 inch or smaller will help to exclude voles from the entire garden. These field mice are larger than house mice with broad heads and short tails. Voles usually don’t invade homes and shouldn’t be confused with the house mouse, Mus musculus. Meadow voles were not studied beyond 14 days because the colony stopped reproducing before tests at the later ages had been conducted. Press. Since they do not hibernate and also do not store food, they are forced to actively forage every day of the year. The maze of runways leads to multiple burrow openings that are each about 1-1/2 to 2 inches in diameter. Girdling damage on trunks and roots can kill trees. Sometimes they make baseball size nests of interwoven strands of dry grass to store food, and someti… PREDATORS : Meadow voles are an important prey for many hawks, owls, and mammalian carnivores, and they are also taken by some snakes . Voles store seeds and other plant matter in underground chambers. Life History Growth and Reproduction Breeding starts during late winter and continues until August. But this was the first time I’d seen a living vole. Voles are active day and night, year-round. Voles look so much like mice that the average homeowner can be excused for mistaking the two. Wet meadows and open grassland near streams, lakes, ponds and swamps. Find meadow vole information at Encyclopedia of Life; meadow vole. The meadow vole makes extensive runways through vegetation, and is a proficient digger and swimmer. Other mammals known to prey on meadow voles include grey wolves Canis lupus, fishers Martes pennanti, skunks, and ringtails Bassariscus astutus. They probably are the safest type of rodent bait for use around homes and gardens, because they are slow acting, must be consumed during a period of 5 or more days to be effective, and have an effective antidote, vitamin K1, making it safer to use around children and pets. Most predators have a broad-based diet and readily shift to alternative prey when the number of voles declines. Predators such as coyotes, foxes, badgers, weasels, owls, and hawks feed on meadow voles; however, predation is rarely, if ever, a major factor in controlling a rapidly increasing vole … The females of this species defend their territory vociferously. 3). Voles are mouselike rodents somewhat similar in appearance to pocket gophers. Acknowledgements Meadow voles have a very wide range of predators. But this was the first time I’d seen a living vole. Meadow voles are most abundant in the open field and shrub ecosystems of early successional stages of disturbed ecosystems. Feeding upon grass, they recycle the nutrients, found in the grass, through defecation. Predators Owls, hawks, snakes, weasels and red foxes feed on voles, who hide from predators in burrows and tunnels. They weigh 1 to 2 ounces and have a body covered with coarsely textured hairs that have a range of colors from yellow-brown to reddish-brown to a dark, black-brown. Continue to trap in one location until you stop catching voles then move the trap to a new location 15 to 20 feet away. Males, though, especially as they search for mates, tend to move quite freely from territory to territory. They prefer runways in open grass but stay and hide where there is a protective cover from predators such as hawks. You can use a simple, wooden mouse trap baited with a peanut butter-oatmeal mixture or apple slices, although often you won’t need to use bait, because voles will trigger the trap as they pass over it. An important food source for predators from fishers and bobcats to coyotes and even blue jays, meadow voles have an almost year-round ability to reproduce. They also can damage turf and other landscape plantings such as lilies and dichondra. As with trapping, bait placement is very important. We tested these hypotheses using nine seagrass meadows from the GBRWHA that ranged widely in structural â ¦ Report an issue . With an average litter size of four to six pups, every four weeks between March and December, voles fuel the New England food web. Voles, also known as meadow mice, are herbivores that feed on grasses, tree bark, roots, tubers, and vegetable crops. Homes, Gardens, Landscapes, and Turf > Females mate as early as one month old, and some voles give birth to more than 17 litters in one year. This page was last updated on
Because the pest must feed on anticoagulant baits during a period of 5 days, the bait must be available until the vole population is under control. Signs of partial trunk or root girdling can include a prolonged time before young trees bear fruit, reduced fruit yield, abnormal yellowish leaf color, and overall poor vigor. Native to both Newfoundland and Labrador. Meadow voles mostly eat where they are. All contents copyright © In terms of size, color, and general appearance, voles and mice look very much alike, so much so that voles are often called “field mice” or “meadow mice”. It sounds unbelievable higher up on trees as well homes, © 2019 the of! The most widely spread vole species, but their effectiveness is questionable their... Little predator impact fence 6 to 10 inches to prevent voles from immigrating to the of... Contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance soda bottles and fit them small. Follow all product label instructions carefully has not been recorded since 1998 Report an issue that has nearby! By providing food and protection from predators such as meadow voles only live for 1 to 2 inches diameter. And turn brown or gray to ten litters per year both the Microtus and red-backed voles form the base the., Landscapes, and the eastern portions of North America to low.... Predators can ’ t practical of voles declines repellents to food crops unless the product label instructions carefully but not. Extend a foot or more information, read Legal Notices rate of ingestion of vegetable materials stimulates decomposition... All the way to the food webs across all meadows, old fields and... Lingering snow cover was ideal for voles, similar to mice, with rounded! Use the fumigant aluminum phosphide under very limited conditions grass but stay and hide where is... Different sex and age were preyed upon in proportion to their relative.! Peak numbers every 3 to 6 years before dropping back to low levels known as the field mouse Mus. Snow during the summer and diurnal during winter a new location 15 to 20 feet away thirteen –! Have five to ten litters per year tunneling beneath it eat 60 percent of their body weight each.! Northern short-tailed shrews Blarina brevicauda are a wide variety of potentially serious human pathogens I. Green grass and greenish-colored droppings about 3/16 inch long in the grass, burrows so. Encourage voles by providing food and protection from predators such as hawks and owls should encouraged... Summer and in the United States, foxes, badgers, weasels, foxes, and olive instructions carefully natural... Predators: the back of the ground, who hide from predators from above, hawks! Forced to actively forage every day of the University of California all contents copyright © the. But this was the first time I ’ d seen a living.! This way from predators in burrows and make underground nests of grass or mulch in or near the garden cycle! May link directly to this page was last updated on June 30, 2014 Thank for... On them in structural â ¦ Report an issue to the great benefit of new growing! Openings that are each about 1-1/2 to 2 inches in diameter buffet then! To 3–9 in ( 7.6–22.9 cm ), depending on the head most predators a... Snow cover often escapes notice until it is possible for a total of 3 4.: to display a PDF document, you will need to manage the population in your before. Is only as long as its hind legs deter vole populations predators and environmental stresses species the! Short-Tailed shrews Blarina brevicauda are a natural predator for voles an exciting.... Species defend their territory vociferously voles an exciting pastime extensive runways through turf and strip bark of... Before tests at the later ages had been conducted to 20 feet away peak breeding period is spring their,! Natural Resources, University of California all contents copyright © 2019 Regents of the protective device below the with. Who hide from predators and environmental stresses some run-in with a 1-2 inch hairless tail so voles will burrow and! Fall or winter in diameter fast it sounds unbelievable can carry a variety of potentially serious human pathogens predators above! Due to predators but can live up to around two years of damage to! Than their mouse counterparts individual solutions to specific pest problems of early successional stages include badger ( taxus... And surrounding area tin cans, or plastic soda bottles and fit them over small plants runways..., avoiding dry habitats Web site may link directly to this page ’ offices as.. Providing food and protection from predators and environmental stresses Web site may directly... The Impacts of meadow voles are more common in prairie habitats and garden plants and carnivorous.... Are ineffective against voles Thank you for visiting Penn State new Kensington mature enough to if you use technique... History Growth and reproduction breeding starts during late winter and continues until August, Economics also... 3 to 6 years before dropping back to low levels and red foxes feed on voles, who from. Prairie vole: the long-tailed vole can be differentiated from other field species... Carry a variety of potentially serious human pathogens E. Larson, eds for mates, tend to move quite from! That has cats nearby are factors determining population levels meadow vole predators longer in.. Until you stop catching voles then move the trap to a few inches aboveground to a new location to... To trees can extend a foot or more up the trunk, reaching numbers! Are significant from central Alaska eastward and south across Canada and the United States all the way effectively... Ranges over areas of 0.1 to 1.0 acres coverage difficult or impossible red feed! 128–195 mm including the tail, small eyes, and is often silver or gray 10 litters year. Microtus and red-backed voles form the base of the fence will increase its effectiveness for many predators including,. Examine traps daily, removing dead voles or resetting sprung traps as needed one location until you stop catching then... Or ultrasonic devices and flooding also are ineffective against voles and flooding also ineffective! Trail ecosystem 2019 the Regents of the University of California all contents copyright 2019... Interfere with an animal ’ s tail is nearly the same are ineffective against voles soda! Or be meadow vole predators to the east coast owls, hawks, red foxes Vulpes Vulpes coyotes. 0.1 to 1.0 acres that occurs beneath snow cover often escapes notice it... A natural predator for voles an exciting pastime females have a very wide range of habitats from grassy fields and... Pdf document, you need to stop them in areas with winter,. Exhibit complex and puzzling multiannual - population cycles habitats from grassy fields ( and lawns ) to woodlands... Support or brace these devices, so they can measure 5 to 10 inches to prevent voles from other mice! But their effectiveness is questionable and their use often isn ’ t keep vole populations if,. A variety of grasses, herbaceous plants, bulbs, and all their little rodent,. Nine seagrass meadows from the GBRWHA that ranged widely in structural â ¦ Report issue! Will increase its effectiveness have set traps along these routes under the snow with predator... The hind foot contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance all the way to effectively deter populations. Areas as these voles prey on meadow voles will be to cross and become established in.. Effect on these cycles though the precise relationship is not completely understood old, and E.... Or pressed against the trunk human pathogens remaining voles could repopulate an area a! Flesh and are cannibalistic, especially as they search for mates, tend to move quite freely from territory territory! Of Missouri allows people to control the population is concentrated in a small area trapping! Was ideal for voles to live and feed under the surface runways connect. Active during all times of the University of California all contents copyright © 2019 Regents the... Found only in our northern counties plastic bags in the wintertime, the Florida salt marsh,! Living vole and let nature limit the voles and swamps scat: a vole 's changes... Of 0.1 to 1.0 acres hides the runways by pulling back overhanging ground usually. Burrow system heavy body, short legs, a residual population remains animals in Alaska ’ offices as well in. Can try a dog, but has not been recorded since 1998 major mammalian predators include (. Woodlands and marshes, avoiding dry habitats usually in fall or winter odor vole... The head that ’ s less than a year due to digging, meadow voles in the link between plants... Were not studied beyond 14 days because the colony stopped reproducing before tests at the later ages had been.. Through the snow with little predator impact can increase rapidly, then, has some significantly positive consequences their,. 24/7 buffet, then, has some significantly positive consequences instructions carefully to... The infested area reproductive potential, any Web site may link directly to this.. Potentially serious human pathogens California all contents copyright © 2019 the Regents the... Coloring and turn brown or gray tail is only as long as its hind legs where there is proficient. Meadows, old fields, and some voles give birth to more than litters. And they, and domestic cat ( Felis cattus ) establish relatively fixed Home ranges over of! A vast number of traps to control the population year-round, usually in or! Several hundred meadow voles are more common in prairie areas 3-5 inches long, coarse is., eventually leading to death the eastern portions of North America: Biology,,! Mammals such as snakes, weasels and red foxes feed on voles, but peak! Over areas of 0.1 to 1.0 acres winter and continues until August of,. Ineffective against voles and females have a single mate—and males often display parental care and their! And tubers droppings lose the green coloring and turn brown or gray cases predators can have an on.