X (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 10: Reconstruction of an Aztec ‘teputzopilli’ (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 11: The construction of an experimental macuahuitl by Marco A. de la Curz and Marco Cervera (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 12: Atlatl throwing, Codex Becker, fol. It consisted of a wooden staff, 70-80 cms. 37r (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 2: Eagle and Jaguar Knights, Florentine Codex Book 2 (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 3: Warriors’ stone - Mexica sculpture, National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 4: Aztec cotton doublets together with other military equipment; illustration by Adam Hook (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 5: Bows and arrows: traditional ‘ranged’ weapons, the world over. Want an ad-free experience?Subscribe to Independent Premium. The first working model of a macuahuitl was made of oak, to which the obsidian blades were added using pine resin; later on the designs were altered, the oak was substituted with pine, and finally, following research, the resins were replaced with more authentic ones from the spiny shrubs mezquite and huizache (acacia plant) (Pic 11).Today the reconstruction of the macuahuitl in several parts of the world and the study of how it was used are starting to be topics of great interest to researchers who are contributing significantly to our knowledge of this artefact. At 18, he was chosen by the Mexican army to join its elite unit, the airborne special forces group known by its Spanish acronym, Gafe, where he specialized as a sniper. Create a commenting name to join the debate, There are no Independent Premium comments yet - be the first to add your thoughts, There are no comments yet - be the first to add your thoughts. Recently the present author, together with the team of Atlatl México, has experimented with other Mesoamerican weapons, including the use of dart-throwers against the ichahuipilli, succeeding in penetrating the latter, though only lightly. This article was later (2006) published in English in the journal Arms and Armour, Journal of the Royal Armouries, and was subsequently adapted for public consumption in the magazine Arqueología Mexicana (no. In the Redemption's multiplayer mode, the Mexican Army does not have a section in the Outfitter. The standard issue firearm for the U.S. soldier was the .69-caliber smoothbore flintlock musket. The Mexican Army (Spanish: Ejército Mexicano) is the land branch, and the largest of the Mexican military services, it is also known as the 'National Defense Army of Mexico'. Please continue to respect all commenters and create constructive debates. Mexican Army Weapons Obregon Pistol: If you were to put this gun right next to a Colt M1911, you'd swear that they are the exact same thing. It consisted of a wooden staff, 70-80 cms. Are you sure you want to delete this comment? Many plants and animals had more than one meaning... Did the mysterious Aztec deity Ometeotl actually exist? Start your Independent Premium subscription today. 2021 Military Pay Scale Army Ranks Navy Ranks Air Force Ranks Alphabet Code DoD Dictionary The "Military Factory" name and MilitaryFactory.com logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. No-one is yet sure if such systems – warriors with macuahuitl and shield or with bow-and-arrow and shield – are based on functional needs or on social factors, including the Mexica military hierarchy. Want to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference later? In the prehispanic era, there were many indigenous tribes and highly developed city-states in what is now known as central Mexico. The most advanced and powerful kingdoms were those of Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopan, which comprised populations of the same ethnic origin and were politically linked by an alliance known as the Triple Alliance; colloquially these three states are known as the Aztec. Warrior with macuahuitl2. (Courtesy of David Squiers.) ClassificationThe best known and most traditional classification system is the following:-Two DEFENSIVE weapons were particularly common: the passive ichahuipilli or cotton doublet with a coating of salt, generally worn as a type of waistcoat underneath the military uniforms of Eagle and Jaguar Knights and other orders.A common active weapon in defense was the shield or chimalli, of which we know a wide range existed, varying not only in design but also in manufacturing materials: whilst some were made exclusively for combat use, others were simply military insignias and symbolic objects given to officers in religious festivals. ‘Nearly everything you were taught about Aztec “sacrifice” is wrong’, Sacrifice in the pre-Hispanic Mixtec codices, The Concept of the Wheel in Ancient Mesoamerica, Mexica (Aztec) Human Sacrifice: New Perspectives. Alfonso Durazo, secretary of security and civilian protection, said the “propaganda video” was being analysed to confirm its authenticity. More than 95% of European weapons … In the prehispanic era, there were many indigenous tribes and highly developed city-states in what is now known as central Mexico. 41v (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 16: Aztec macuahuitl alongside Spanish sword, exhibition on Moctezuma II, Templo Mayor Museum, Mexico City (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 17: Aztec elite officers with lances, Codex Mendoza folio 67 (Click on image to enlarge). Portrait of a Collection: National Museum of Mexico, 1865. 'Propaganda video' comes as Mexican president visits criminal group's heartland, Find your bookmarks in your Independent Premium section, under my profile. 4v (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 6: In popular Mexican tradition the captive Moctezuma II was killed by a sling by Cuauhtémoc; oil on canvas screen painting of the Spanish Conquest (detail), National History Museum, Mexico City (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 7: The ‘macuahuitl’: model displayed as part of the British Museum Moctezuma exhibition, London (bottom); artist’s impression by Felipe Dávalos (top) (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 8: Club-wielding warriors from Tlachquiauhco, Fray Diego Durán ‘Historia...’ fol. 10 (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 13: Mexica warriors bearing macuahuitls, Fray Diego Durán ‘Libro de Dioses y Ritos’ folio 273r (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 14: A pine machuahuitl staff is fractured by a blow against a steel sword (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 15: War between the Aztecs and the people of Cuitlahuac, Fray Diego Durán ‘Historia...’ fol. He added that “there is no criminal group with the capacity to successfully challenge the federal security forces”. Please be respectful when making a comment and adhere to our Community Guidelines. Rafael Mendoza was a veteran of the 1910 Mexican Revolution and had a natural talent for arms design. Our tests weren’t limited to Mesoamerican weapons: as far as we were able we also tested Spanish weapons. Falko Ernst, a senior analyst on Mexico for the International Crisis Group, said the video sent a clear warning over potential retaliation against the government by the cartel. The Mexican-American War proved that Regular Army light artillery in the service of the United States was a weapon that could obtain battlefield superiority, if not supremacy, over its enemies. He added: “Rather than a declaration of war, from my perspective it's primarily geared at guarding the status quo, at a crucial time where the fed gov has to define its future posture regarding the CJNG.”. The pulque gods’ ‘golden section’... How did Mesoamericans envision the cosmos? Stone sculptures and other Mexica art provide a further important source of information; yet despite the large number of available images, standards and meanings tend to get swallowed up in symbolism, which can make understanding the practical use of Aztec weapons harder to grasp. 15mm "Perdicaris Alive, Or Raisuli Dead!" Of the close-range offensive weapons, the favourite among Mexica troops was the macuahuitl. This evidence suggests that Mexico armed its infantry with the India Pattern musket, a 39 inch barrel of.752-.760 caliber. weapons in the armories of Mexico. The Mexican troops reportedly removed a weapon from the American soldier who was armed. The first thing that separates the … James Hughes' Mexican Military Arms is a pretty good book on a subject not often written about. This right has been extensively regulated by the Federal Penal Code, the Federal Law on Firearms and Explosives (which greatly expands the provisions of the Federal Penal Code), and the Regulations of the Federal Law on Firearms and Explosives. A call was made in 2004 by Marco Cervera in the journal Arqueología Mexicana (‘Aztec Weaponry’) in which the need to develop experimental weapons studies was brought to public attention. A macuahuitl was smashed against the ichahuipilli, which proved to be an effective defense: the blades broke immediately and in fact part of the pine macuahuitl itself split when one of the blades was forced back against the wooden staff. A stunning reconstruction of an Aztec headdress. You can find our Community Guidelines in full here. In one notable case a metal sword was used on a macuahuitl which, as expected, fractured the obsidian blade and managed to chip the wood somewhat, without the whole weapon breaking (Pic 14). Of the close-range offensive weapons, the favourite among Mexica troops was the macuahuitl. Current studies of pre-Hispanic weapons using experimental archaeology are gaining attention, even if the initial experiments point to the need for improved tests and further interpretations to be made.In Mexico the first such serious studies began in the 1970s with the work of Francisco González Rul, who made a reproduction macuahuitl for display in the Introduction to Mesoamerica Room of the National Anthropology Museum in Mexico City. Warrior with throwing lance. The right to bear arms in Mexico is granted in the Constitution. How Moctezuma died - what WAS or what SHOULD HAVE BEEN? The most insightful comments on all subjects will be published daily in dedicated articles. CJNG is regarded as Mexico’s strongest gang, along with the Sinaloa Cartel formerly led by jailed drug lord Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman. There were 10 … It becomes obvious that the defenders used it. People ask why the Mexican Marines don’t apply the same aerial assaults on the Sinaloa Cartel in Culiacán. Dart thrower2. Given that not a single instruction guide or codex exists to show us exactly how these weapons were used, it has been experimental archaeology that has proved most successful in revealing the technical aspects of weapon use.We all know how the atlatl and the bow-and-arrow work in theory, but loading the dart-thrower, keeping the dart in position and achieving a good throw is far from easy, especially to begin with. Mr Lopez Obrador has favoured a less confrontational approach to security than his predecessors and supported measures to address social issues, such as poverty and unemployment, which he has argued contribute to crime. Specific movements are required to develop a full swing which will guide the projectile to the desired target.Without a doubt it is the macuahuitl that causes most disagreement surrounding its method of use: whilst anyone can brandish the weapon and land a heavy blow with it, we have no idea if the Mexica developed specific techniques for delivering wounding blows (or indeed defensive moves) that would allow for the weapon’s weak points, such as its fragile and brittle cutting edges.Weapons systemsWe should always keep in mind that classification methods, knowledge built on research findings and even experimental archaeology will all be found wanting if the interpretations that stem from them aren’t developed within broader, critical frameworks. Independent Premium Comments can be posted by members of our membership scheme, Independent Premium. 84).Questions have arisen as to the most faithful way to reproduce a macuahuitl based on the sources known to us, given that not a single historical example of this weapon exists anywhere in the world (save for some possible fragments held in the storerooms of the National Anthropology Museum, of unknown date). Mexico’s top security official has said authorities are investigating a video which showed dozens of uniformed troops with military-grade weapons and armoured pickup trucks apparently connected to a major drug cartel. Osprey Publishing, London, 2001. Who is the Mexican drug baron and Sinaloa cartel kingpin El Chapo? The ichahuipilli was placed over a large pig’s trotter to simulate a human body in the tests. Delfino was handpicked twice. The team also aimed darts with an atlatl against an Aztec shield: the obsidian head lodged in the shield, but didn’t necessarily penetrate it. Are you sure you want to mark this comment as inappropriate? José Enrique de la Peña reported that each man in the Alamo had three or four of these guns stacked up for their use. Picture sources:-• Pix 1, 5, 8, 13, 15: Images from Fray Diego Durán Historia de las Indias de Nueva España e Islas de Tierra Firme (original in the Biblioteca Nacional de Madrid, Spain): public domain• Pic 2: Image from the Florentine Codex (original in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence) scanned from our own copy of the Club Internacional del Libro 3-volume facsimile edition, Madrid, 1994• Pix 3, 10, 11, 14: Photos courtesy Marco A. Cervera• Pic 4: Illustration courtesy Osprey Publishing, London• Pix 6, 7 (bottom), 16: Photos by Ian Mursell/Mexicolore• Pic 7 (top): Illustration by Felipe Dávalos commissioned by Mexicolore• Pic 9: Image from the Tovar Manuscript (original in the John Carter Brown Library, Rhode Island, USA) scanned from the ADEVA, Graz, Austria 1972 edition.• Pic 12: Image from the Codex Becker scanned from our own copy of the ADEVA facsimile edition, Graz, Austria, 1961• Pic 17: Image from the Codex Mendoza (original in the Bodleian Library, Oxford) scanned from our own copy of the James Cooper Clark facsimile edition, London, 1938, This article was uploaded to the Mexicolore website on Jan 02nd 2012, Mexica Weaponry: Classification, Systems and Latest Research, Arms and Armour, Journal of the Royal Armouries, Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control, Historia de las Indias de Nueva España e Islas de Tierra Firme, The Maya story of the creation of humankind. Based largely on images in codices, some hypothetical systems have emerged, focused around one weapon shown accompanied by another, leading to (new) ideas relating to tactics and techniques. Aztec songs about Tenochtitlan are full of symbolic metaphors, The famous obsidian Aztec jar in the form of a spider monkey. Our journalists will try to respond by joining the threads when they can to create a true meeting of independent Premium. 15mm Special Mexican War Range for GTSTE . Further Reading:-• Cervera Obregón Marco A, “The macuahuitl: A probable weaponary innovation of the Late Postclassic in Mesoamérica” in Arms and Armour, Journal of the Royal Armouries, no.3, Leeds, 2006, 127-148• Hassig Ross, Aztec Warfare: Imperial Expansion and Political Control, Oklahoma University Press, 1988• Pohl, John, Aztec Warrior, 1325-1521. Warrior with bow-and-arrow3. I have proposed several systems in recent publications, including:-Long-distance1. 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