Also known as a 2nd generation language. Computer Mouse and GUI make computers more enjoyable. Subsequently, in 1959, IBM continued its evolution and created the most successful machine in computing history (12,000 units sold): the IBM 1401 transistor-based mainframe. Second-generation programming language (2GL) is a generational way to categorize assembly languages.. It would take operators days or even weeks to set-up a new problem. The IBM 7094 is the computer of the second generation. Input was based on punched cards and paper tape, and output was displayed on printouts. Much smaller size. They took up less space and produced less heat than computers that operated with vacuum tubes. The invention of the transistor made possible a new generation of computers with the following characteristics: The creation of transistors and their use in computer manufacturing, triggered a series of events in the history of computing, not only because it represented a significant technological advance, but also initiated a new stage in equipment commercialization. Examples of this generation computer are STAR 1000, CRAY-X-MP (Super Computer), PDP 11, DEC 10, and CRAY-1. Each of them was soldered on top of a circuit board that served to connect to other individual components. In its normal state, the semi-conductor was not conductive, but when a certain voltage was applied to it, it became conductive and the electric current flowed through it. The world saw transistor replaced the vacuum tubes in the second generation of computers. A transistor computer, now often called a second generation computer, is a computer which uses discrete transistors instead of vacuum tubes.The first generation of electronic computers used vacuum tubes, which generated large amounts of heat, were bulky and unreliable. The distinguishing feature of second generation computers (1956-1963) is that they used discrete transistors mounted on printed circuit cards. The main features of second generation are −, Reliable in comparison to first generation computers, Smaller size as compared to first generation computers, Generated less heat as compared to first generation computers, Consumed less electricity as compared to first generation computers. The period of second generation was from 1959-1965. A) Computer Characteristics & Capabilities – 1. Large companies began to use the computer for storage, registration, inventory management, payroll and accounting. It used a magnetic core memory with more than 60,000 decimal digits. They were a big improvement over the vacuum tube, despite still subjecting computers to damaging levels of heat. They were programmed with high level languages which allowed new utilities in which they could be used. Computers of first generation used vacuum tubes as the basic components for memory and circuitry for Central Processing Unit.The first electronic computer, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and calculator) was developed in 1947 at the University of Pennsylvania, USA. These computing machines make usage of the transistors invented by Bell Telephone research labs and they had many of the same constituents as the contemporary computing machine. Techopedia explains Second Generation (Programming) Language (2GL) Assembly Languages originated in the 1940s, and are attributed to the efforts of the American naval officer Grace Hopper, with the introduction of the FLOW-MATIC language for the ENIAC computer. Second generations of computer (1955-1964 AD) 3. The period of second generation was from 1959-1965. The term transistor derives from the combination of the English words transfer resistor, and is an electronic, semiconductor device with multiple functions such as amplify, oscillate, switch or rectify. However, the cost remained high. The first generation is the Vacuum Tube Generation. Example of this generations include: UNIVAC, ENICA, EDVAC. On the other hand, computer programs that were conceived during the first generation were improved, since new programming languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN were developed. Size– Smaller than first generation Computers. They generate a lot of heat; They consume of a lot of electricity ; They where very bulkey in size; They were expensive. In addition, the use of high level languages allowed the improvement in program implementation and its use in airline reservation systems, air traffic control and general purpose simulations. 9. Index registers and floating point arithmetic hardware became widespread. There are some computers of the second generation, which are given below: IBM 7094; IBM 1620; CDC 1604; CDC 3600; UNIVAC1108; Honeywell 400; Computer Architecture of IBM 7094. Fig: computers of the second generation. First generation computers relied on machine language, the lowest-level programming language understood by computers, to perform operations, and they could only solve one problem at a time. Second Generation (Transistors) Year 1956 – 1963 Characteristics > Used transistors instead of vacuum tubes for circuitry, which enabled computers of this generation to become smaller, faster, cheaper and more energy-efficient > Used magnetic core instead of magnetic drums as … In this generation, transistors were used that were cheaper, consumed less power, more compact in size, more reliable and faster than the first generation machines made of vacuum tubes. second generation computer (architecture) A computer built from transistors, designed between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s. 1.1 GENERATION OF COMPUTERS The first electronic computer was designed and built at the University of Pennsylvania based on vacuum tube technology. Second Generation Computers Sample The computing machines built in the 1950s and 1960s are considered the 2nd coevals computing machines. The transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes and allowed computers to be smaller in size, faster in speed and cheaper to build. It acted as a transmitter and resistor (ergo its name; ‘trans’, ‘istor'). More powerful, more reliable, and less expensive, which made them more commercial. Featured computers from the second generation. The first computers used vacuum tubes and occupied a considerable space (up to 30m long). The UNIVAC and ENIAC computers are examples … INDEX 3. 3. The input of this system was based on punched cards and paper tape; however, the output was displayed on printouts. Examples of second generation computers were: UNIVAC 1108 Transistors Replaced Vaccum Tube. second generation computers second generation computers where manufactured using transistors, rather than vacuum tube. Available for any type of person. Examples of the second generation comp… However, acquisition costs remained high. A couple of years later, in 1962, Spacewar! The examples of second generation computers are IBM 7094 series, IBM 1400 series and CDC 164 etc. 2. C++. UNIVAC – Universal Automatic Computer . This equipment was characterized for using 50 metal disks of 61 cm, with 100 tracks per side. By 1960, IBM launched the IBM 1620 mainframe. Advantages. 2. Ultimately, they served as an update for using less power and space. Five Generations of computer. 8. The invention of transistor lead to start the second generation of computers. They used networks of magnetic cores instead of rotating drums for primary storage, containing small rings of linked magnetic material in which data and instructions could be stored. See computer generations, IBM 1401 and Honeywell. The replacement of vacuum tubes by transistors saw the advent of the second generation of computing. Examples: ENIAC – Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator. In the First Generation, Computer and vacuum tube were the main components at that time as a technology for a computer. This transistor-based equipment used a perforated paper ribbon which quickly changed to punched cards. It had a storage capacity of 5 megabytes of data. They were built with transistor electronics. The second generation of computers saw the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. It used punched cards and a 4000 character magnetic core memory. Speed– Relatively fast as compared to first generation, thousand instruct… As compared to the first generations of the computer the modern-day computers are faster, smarter, stronger and cheaper and can store a … Smaller in size as compared to the first generation computers. The term was coined to provide a distinction from higher level machine independent third-generation programming languages (3GL) such as COBOL and earlier first-generation programming languages (machine code). Magnetic Drums: Punched Cards: Paper Tape: Disadvantages . 2. Examples are the IBM 1401, IBM 7090 and 7094, UNIVAC 1107, PDP-1 and 8. Smaller, cheaper, more efficient and faster than second generation computers; High-level programming languages; Magnetic storage; Examples: Well-known computers in this generation include the DEC PDP series and the IBM-360 series computers. Some of the computers that were already built with transistors in this period were: IBM 1401; Honeywell 800 and 5000 series; UNIVAC M460; The IBM 7090 and 7094; NCR 315; The RCA 501 and 601 The input for these computers were higher level languages like COBOL, FORTRAN etc. Example of Second Generation of Computer: 1. IBM had two product lines, a “commercial” product line and a “scientific” line, which were unified into one. These computers were more reliable and in place of vacuum tubes, used transistors. Vacuum tubes were used to perform logic operations and to store data. This made them far more compact than the first generation computers. Finally, in 1964, IBM released the 360 series, made up of computers that were characterized by running the same software in different combinations of speed, capacity and price. The main technology for Second Generation was transistors (1956-1963). The second generation of computers did not represent an opening to the mass market; The developed models were not even conceived as household machinery, and it took a few years to really adapt to a market, so be specialized. Delphi BASIC. Some examples of third generation computers are the IBM System/360, IBM 1130, UNIVAC 1107, Apollo Flight Computer, Minuteman II Guidance Computer, UNIVAC … 7. Third generation (1965-1974 AD) 4. In order to create the first flight simulator, the U.S. Navy used second-generation computers. It proved to be a popular scientific computer reaching sales of approximately 2000 units. 5. In order to create the first flight simulator, the U.S. Navy used second-generation computers. 7. These computers differ from the previous four generations. Basic Computer Language. The computers used batch processing and multiprogramming operating system. Some of the computers that were already built with transistors in this period were: Characteristics of the second generation of computers, History of the second generation of computers, Inventions of the second generation of computers, Inventors of the second generation of computers, Featured computers from the second generation. This advance made computers faster, smaller, lighter, more reliable and with less need for ventilation, making them also commercially accessible and powerful. The computers built in the 1950s and 1960s are considered the 2nd generation computers. The second generation of computers covered the period from 1959 to 1964. This video is about: 2nd Generation of Computer . ... Every home has several examples of embedded computers. The microprocessor chips are used in this generation of computers. Physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley, who knowing the properties of the silicon found in quartz stones, after years of research finally conceived the transistor. Vaccum tubes are replaced by transistors. 6. In addition, DEC launched the PDP-1, its first machine primarily aimed at laboratory technicians and research staff. Second generation computers can be characterized largely by their use of transistors. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as the primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. Ferrite core memory and magnetic drums replaced cathode ray tubes and delay-line storage for main memory. In this generation, assembly language and high-level programming languages like FORTRAN, COBOL were used. In this generation, magnetic cores were used as the primary memory and magnetic tape and magnetic disks as secondary storage devices. was developed, the first computer game. The IBM 7090 was a transistorized version of the vacuum tube IBM 709 machine. Java. IBM developed the first high-level general-purpose programming language, FORTRAN. More powerful and reliab… This generation marked a new era that was defined by the replacement of vacuum valves by transistors, which implied the creation of more reliable computers with less ventilation needs, making them commercially accessible and powerful. They contained a semi-conductor material that could change its electrical state when pulsed. Computers developed between 1959-1965 the second generation computers. Although first invented in 1947, transistors weren’t used significantly in computers until the end of the 1950s. Generations of Computer: 1. The 2nd generation Computers were m ore reliable ; Used less energy and were not heated. 200 transistors could be accommodated in the same amount of space as a vacuum tube, a characteristic that made them faster, smaller, and more reliable. 4. The second generation of computers marks a milestone in computer history thanks to the technological advance that meant the creation of transistors to process information to replace vacuum tubes. Fourth generation (1975 AD- till the date) 5. 4. In computers, they functioned as an electronic switch or bridge. Much less expensive. The Five Generations of Computers can be described as the overall development of computer technology respective to their size, power, PC memory, cost, and application. Fifth generation (Developing process) ALGOL. The first models of this generation were developed for the atomic energy industry. Second-generation-computer definitions A computer made of discrete transistors and other electronic components. 6. Thanks to this, they had other advantageous features: 1. It was the last commercial, scientific mainframe computer, and the transistorized version of the earlier … Fig: Architecture of computer. In 1956, IBM sold its first magnetic disk system, the RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control). Computers could store more data in less space, 200 transistors could be accommodated in the same amount of space as a vacuum tube. These cores contained small rings of linked magnetic material in which data and instructions could be stored. FORTRAN. Now in this article, we are going to list out . The creation of the transistor made possible a new generation of computers, faster and much smaller and, moreover, with less need for ventilation. In the early 1960s, the IBM 1401 and Honeywell 400 were examples. Well, these generation computers use the high level of languages like Perl, Python, C, JAVA, etc. 3. 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