But even if a signal could somehow return to Earth, by the time it arrived, it would be too faint for us to detect. Time and further investigation will tell. What methods attempt to prove the origin of water on Earth? About 3.26 light-years. I watched with a mix of awe and fear. — What is a “neutron star?” — Mars With respect to general difficulties, manned space exploration is incredibly expensive. Hence, extra gravity must be at work within galaxies due to something invisible that’s holding them together. Individual sunspots last from a few days to several weeks. — Its temperature is around 4,600 Kelvin. PowerPoint. Britain’s latitude is approximately 55°N, so Brits see the Pole Star 55° above the northern horizon. Meteoroids may possess some iron-nickel content. i made these in year 9 so i went a bit overboard with the colour, but they have all the main points that might come up in the exam. We know this because analysis of meteorites and Mars rocks reveals different ratios of oxygen isotopes. Meeting the stars of Star Trek! Note that, in fact, after a rock has entered the atmosphere, but before it hits the ground, it’s called a ‘meteor’ — halfway between meteoroid and meteorite! The lava left behind dark, iron-rich, basaltic plains. However, at GCSE, you don’t even need to know this! Please make sure that you are following the correct syllabus by checking this page.There was no content change in the syllabus since 2009 although the exam became linear in 2012 (1st sitting 2014). A lunar eclipse is caused by Earth passing between the Moon (in its Full phase) and the Sun, so that Earth’s shadow covers the Moon. There’s also strong evidence to support that on Earth, 65 million years ago, the dinosaurs were wiped out by a large comet or asteroid impact close to Mexico. — The standard orbital period (360°) is called the ‘sidereal month’ (27.3 days). For example, the brightest star in Orion is designated α Ori, while the second brightest star in Gemini is designated β Gem. What are rilles and wrinkle ridges? A strange object left by a star (eight to ten times the mass of our Sun) which has collapsed at the end of its life. I’ve discussed gravity on the GCSE Physics page of this website. – During a partial lunar eclipse, Earth casts a curved shadow upon the Moon. A CD-ROM abundant with resources to support pupils of GCSE (9-1) Astronomy. astronomy notes. [could be rocky planets or gas giants], ne = [that is, length of time before life uses technology to destroy itself]. Likewise, taking Earth as an example, it’s true to say that the Moon and all our planet’s artificial satellites share the same constant. The Sun may be partially eclipsed for up to two hours. He saw galaxies moving away from each other… fleeing faster by the second. OuttheBoxScience Electricity and Magnetism (Activate KS3) $ 13.09. Home > GCSE > Astronomy > astronomy notes. The answer is yes. The outer belt also attracts particles emitted by solar flares. Access and download, syllabi, notes, applets and videos. Their awesome discoveries are legion… but beyond the scope of this lesson. It also covers the inverse square law of light intensity, and explains what a Cepheid variable star is. 3 colour image . Saturn is around 9.5 AU from the Sun. If the only gravity out there came from massive objects like stars, there wouldn’t be enough to maintain the galactic structure we see all around. Let’s break it down further. If you have booked a ticket for this period please contact bookings@rmg.co.uk. number of stars in our galaxy? It exerts the same gravitational pull as the leftover core of the exploding star that created it. Astronomy / The Solar System. It can also be glimpsed using a telescope fitted with a H-alpha filter. What is the typical composition of a comet? All the resources available are up to date.. It’s the guarantee of PapaCambridge that you will find the the most detailed and well arranged resources of Astronomy (2017) like nowhere else. Once you’ve squared T, you’ll get the orbital radius by requesting the CUBE ROOT of the answer. Firstly, the twelve “star signs” of the zodiac are mystical inventions, but the twelve constellations that each sign is named after are real. SWiftScience KS3 Science Project $ 3.93 (2) Updated resources. Solar astronomy offers the chance to see a star doing its thing from just 93 million miles away. Thus, I could be tempted to buy a solar scope in future. speed) at which a galaxy is receding, measured in kilometres per second (km/s); H is a fixed number known as the Hubble Constant (which we’ll discuss below), and d is the distance between you and the galaxy, measured in megaparsecs (Mpc). A star smaller than eight solar masses is unlikely to “go supernova.”  Instead, its outer layers will be gently blown away at the end of its life, leaving a white dwarf where once the star burned. Reviewed in the United Kingdom on 27 January 2019. – It provides us with oxygen to breathe. To see a PARTIAL solar eclipse, you must be standing in the ‘penumbra’ — that is, the diffuse outer shadow cast around the umbra. Some are far more intriguing than our own. A meteor with a magnitude of -3 (or brighter) is called a ‘fireball.’. Typically, this will be a H-alpha filter:  a thin layer of film that fits over the main (objective) lens, blocking out all wavelengths of light except for that emitted by hydrogen atoms — the Sun’s most common element. Declination > 90 – latitude This is used to see if a star is circumpolar or not. Most burn up rapidly, giving the impression of a “shooting star” that streaks across the sky. Step by step. Blank HR Diagrams. You should now watch the supplementary video. How did Eratosthenes accurately calculate Earth’s circumference? This lends further credence to Drake’s equation, making it a little less audacious. How do astronomers know the appearance of the Moon’s far side? What is the Messier Catalogue? The bigger the rock, the more chance that it (or part of it) will reach the ground. What is the shape and diameter of Planet Earth? Since that time (and even before it), space probes have analysed the far side, transmitting data and images back to Earth. Chromosphere  =  4,600K (cools down a bit) For more discussion of black holes on this website, Click Here. You are here: Home Explore by theme GCSE Astronomy resources. Astronomy (S284) starts once a year – in October. But this is beyond discussion of a star’s habitable zone, so I’ll leave it there. The minimum coincides with the start of a cycle. To recap, Kepler’s laws tell us:  (1)planets orbit the Sun in ellipses, with the Sun at one focal point; (2)planets orbiting the Sun sweep out equal areas in equal times; (3)all planets orbiting the Sun are related by a number, known as a “constant” — although you’re not required to calculate this at GCSE. The Hubble Constant allows a 15% differential due to uncertainty among astronomers. These telescopes have another advantage over optical ones:  the Sun makes no difference to them at all! Psychological Stress — The cramped conditions of space flight, and having to live so close to others, can result in low motivation, irritability and depression. Remember that declination is simply latitude (up/down) “projected onto the sky.”  See the video in lesson 13 for more on this. It’s OK to round all quantities to the nearest whole number, since astronomical distances are often given as approximations. The most popular is the giant impact hypothesis. Twelve Apollo astronauts actually walked on the surface. Astronomy GCSE. In fact, the Moon does have an atmosphere, but it’s so tenuous as to be negligible. Pluto (dwarf planet). In the exam, some knowledge of Proxima b might impress the person marking! What does the term “apparent Sun” refer to? — Putting telescopes in space neatly avoids this problem. Updates. Hence, the ecliptic is an orbital plane shared by all the planets of our Solar System, and it lies within the Zodiacal Band. You can sign-up for the new version of the course, and gain the qualification by studying at home! It’s diffuse, consisting mainly of electrons. 6 Resources. If such tiny beings can be found in the red soils of Mars, mankind would know it’s not alone in the Universe. All three of the satellites above, natural and artificial, share the same constant (K). Simply put, “stellar magnitude” is a fancy way of saying “star brightness.”. That said, Apollo astronaut Alfred Worden states that such difficulty soon passes. Why is the far side of the Moon not visible from Earth? Whilst costly, these are built with two aims:  (1)minimise heat build-up; (2)maximise viewing safety. Once free, they behave as a kind of wind — blowing back the tails of comets (as we’ll see in lesson 10), among other things. You should now watch the supplementary video, which discusses Hubble’s Law and the Hubble Constant in further detail. The Lunar Module, Falcon, was on the surface for almost 67 hours. The late great astronomer, Sir Patrick Moore, admitted being irritated whenever somebody asked him:  “What’s the difference between astronomy and astrology?”. Our moon is named “The Moon” (capital ‘M’), although there are many moons to explore in our Solar System. the time when the Sun is highest in the sky. — An even longer journey (say, to Mars) could lead to astronauts developing cancer, unless a sensible and affordable way is found to make spacecraft ‘ray-proof.’. The habitable zone is more popularly described as the Goldilocks Zone, since the conditions for life are just right:  not too hot, nor too cold. The more impact craters a surface has, the older it must be. Visitor notice: Royal Museums Greenwich will be closed from Thursday 5 November until Wednesday 2 December in line with government guidelines. In the exam, avoid confusing nuclear fusion (the merging of nuclei) with general atomic bonding. In physics and chemistry, we are taught to avoid the parallax effect as this can lead to false measurements. 8 Resources. HR Diagram. In his printed masterpiece, Cosmos, the late great astronomer, Carl Sagan, recalls the first time he read about the stars: “[…] I opened the book right there in the library, breathlessly. Notice how the object appears to move a little? That’s the Pole Star. Once calibrated, they’re very low maintenance, and they offer a lifetime of free public service. Measurements are re-taken and compared after six months because that’s when Earth will be on the opposite side of the Sun. But from every failing (big and small), valuable lessons have been learned for the future. If you stood at the North Pole (latitude 90°N), the Pole Star would be directly above your head (declination +90°). And this is the version of the formula you need to know. Don’t worry. These objects are about the size of a city, yet more massive than our Sun… meaning one teaspoonful of neutron star matter would weigh as much as a mountain! But that’s not the end of the story. 3 people found this helpful. Within the ellipse, the Sun occupies one focal point relative to the planet going around. Answer:  the closer the object, the greater its jump. Comets and Meteors. You may be relieved to know that a full understanding of the (quite mathematical) Third Law is no longer required for GCSE Astronomy. — Scientists monitor the sky for such PHOs (and NEOs). Home Past Papers Revison Moon Calendar Links Videos Contact. The closer a comet gets to the Sun, the greater and more pronounced this trail of matter becomes. In fact, the last one (The Plough) is not a constellation, but an ‘asterism’ — that is, a type of mini-constellation within a constellation. Also what is GCSE astronomy- I've never heard of this at any other school? When the Sun, Moon and Earth align such that the moon is in the middle a solar eclipse occurs and when the alignment is such the Earth is between the Sun and Moon a lunar eclipse occurs. However, it deserves to be pointed out that Tycho’s defence of geocentrism was not irrational, but genius. On average, Earth lies 93 million miles (150 million kilometres) from the Sun. Specification Point 7.19P. In my view, that makes our moon something special indeed — to us. What is its orbital radius? — However, the video refers to miles per second rather than kilometres. In fact, the stars of open clusters are moving apart over time, whereas globular clusters tend to grow tighter. The Moon may be partially eclipsed for up to three-and-a-half hours. The video is in three parts. GCSE Astronomy coursework guides: A1 & B1 Lunar features. If you would like to study GCSE Astronomy, click the logo below to visit the website of the Online Astronomy Society Academy (OASA). Imagine a bath full of water, with the water trying to fall down the plughole. A comet is a travelling ball of rock and ice. These employ scientific instruments, including cameras, spectrometers and magnetometers. Wearing sunglasses indoors also assists with dark-adaption. — dust composition; The Doppler Shift Formula: … where λ (‘lambda’) is the observed wavelength of a galaxy’s spectral line (that is, its light);  λ0 is the true (at rest) wavelength as measured in a lab;  v is the galaxy’s radial (that is, recession) velocity, and c is the speed of light (300,000 km/s). — Knowing that 360° make a circle, and realising that going 790km north of Syene results in a 7.2° shadow, Eratosthenes deduced that Earth’s circumference must be 39,500 kilometres (that is, 7.2° goes into 360° fifty times; so, 50 x 790km = 39,500km). Simply a meteoroid that touches down (as opposed to burning up) after surviving the blazing hot, high-friction fall through Earth’s atmosphere. What is a “black hole?” — In fact, our Universe is expanding faster than the speed at which light can travel through it. The central, pitch-black part of any sunspot is called the ‘umbra.’  The broader, less-dark region surrounding the umbra is called the ‘penumbra.’  The umbra is about 2000K cooler than the surface, while the penumbra is about 200K cooler. These are bursts of high-energy radiation sweeping through space, which can have a mutating effect on biological cells. The above diagram makes this obvious, but in reality, you’d need to observe a comet closely to spot the apparent split in its tail. — To put things in perspective, over 99% of the mass in our Solar System exists inside the Sun. Shawon Notes provides notes, guides, past papers and other resources for subjects in IGCSE and IAL Comment Report abuse. What is a sundial? GCSE astronomy Subject content, aims and learning objectives for GCSE astronomy for teaching from 2017. Specification Point 7.16P . This point is known as the ‘radiant.’  Depending which constellation the radiant is closest to will determine the name of the shower. This is due to a 5° tilt in the Moon’s orbit, making perfect Sun-Moon alignment a rare event. Quoting from the most recent edition of my GCSE textbook: “These methods have been successful at detecting massive exoplanets similar to Jupiter, but have yet to provide convincing evidence for the presence of Earth-like worlds with much smaller masses.”. But remember:  the star’s motion is apparent, not real. But the farther away from your nose the finger is held, the smaller its apparent jump becomes. What is meant by “dark matter” and “dark energy?” — One popular theory (the “cometary theory”) is that Earth formed without water molecules, but water later arrived thanks to icy comets ‘depositing’ it via impacts. Basically, if we don’t use it, we lose it. How is the solar atmosphere comprised? OK, that’s not quite true, but it’ll do for GCSE! Therefore, aside from explaining exoplanet detection in general, my article reveals a cutting-edge discovery which renders current textbooks outdated. This is in two main parts:  the relatively thin chromosphere (“sphere of colour”), and the wispy, extensive corona (“crown”). – M44:  The Beehive Cluster (open) A fatal miscalculation led to oxygen levels being much higher than normal. Arguably (and sadly), this last objective may have been the overriding one, simply because Russia had outdone America by claiming three “firsts” — the first probe in orbit (Sputnik, 1957), the first man in space (Yuri Gagarin, 1961), and the first human spacewalk (Alexei Leonov, 1965). We’ve also sent probes chasing after comets! There are no supervised writeups association with the new GCSE (9-1) Astronomy format. ), but beyond our Solar System, stars lie so far apart that miles become meaningless. Home Past Papers Revison Moon Calendar Links Videos Contact. For more information, see lesson 15 and its supplementary video. Indeed, many a bright spark would’ve demonstrated their falsity by now. As you can see (above), only radio waves and visible light in the EM spectrum are able to penetrate all the way to ground-based observatories. Therefore, the sky’s blue colour is due to white sunlight splitting as it enters our atmosphere and interacts with the nitrogen and oxygen — with blue being the colour that gets most scattered around. They include:  Andromeda, Triangulum, the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud and our own galaxy, the Milky Way. Plotting on HR Diagrams. – It absorbs X-rays and gamma rays from outer space. Saturn, for example, is nine-and-a-half times farther from the Sun than Earth; so, we could say that its distance is 883500000 miles… or 9.5 AU. As an interesting aside, there is growing support for the hypothesis that a star of 30 solar masses (or greater) might not explode at all. Rovers, such as the Mars ‘Curiosity’ Rover, carry an onboard laboratory for analysing rock and soil samples they collect. The main features of reflecting and refracting telescopes are discussed in this lesson’s supplementary video. What is the Oort Cloud? Breaking it down, we’re given the orbital period (T) of Uranus as 84 years. However we accept no liability for issues involving exam centres. Step by step. Orbiting Saturn, for example, is the moon Titan:  a world in its own right, with a dense nitrogen-rich atmosphere and lakes of liquid methane. In the image below (captured by Hubble), every point of light is a galaxy! Meanwhile, in Alexandria, a shadow of approximately 7.2° was cast. Astronomy / Gravity & Weight. Note that periods of maximum and minimum sunspot activity are also referred to as the “solar maximum” and “solar minimum” respectively. Square root symbol (normally has its own button):   √, Cube root symbol (may need to press ‘shift’ first):   ∛. In fact, the true value is 40,075km… remarkably close. Black holes are called ‘black’ because they emit no light, so we cannot observe them directly. One such approach is to use your telescope as a projector, like so: But even this method involves some danger. However, by burning fossil fuels, we’re filling our own atmosphere with CO2 — albeit at a slower rate than once occurred on Venus. Thus, if we know the exact time that local noon occurs in another place, we can work out how far east or west that place is by the difference between their local noon and our local noon — i.e. Note that, in fact, every comet sprouts two tails as it approaches the Sun:  one made of gas, one made of dust. Quite the explorer, indeed. – Liquid water covers 71% of its surface. Already, the sea level on Earth is rising, since confirmed global warming may be causing the polar ice caps to melt. Most commonly: What is the name of our galaxy? Determining north-south is easy:  in the northern hemisphere, for instance, the higher the Pole Star appears in the sky, the nearer you must be to the North Pole. The Sun follows the same path as the planets, although the Sun is so bright that nothing else can be seen when it’s in the sky. A couple of months ago, I published an article on this site: Short Talk on Dark Matter (and Dark Energy). That record is held by Venus, the second planet from the Sun. – There are many photographs of Earth taken in orbit… far too many to be faked! Information about the Edexcel GCSE in Astronomy (2017) for students and teachers, including the specification, key documents and the latest news. – Our Moon is covered in impact craters; Thereafter, you’ll have a reliable timekeeper, as long as you remember: — clock time and sundial time won’t always agree — see equation of time (below); In Britain, we set clocks to Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) — which is our mean solar time. What equipment is likely to be needed for naked-eye observing? But in physics/astronomy, fusion is different to bonding. Planets follow slightly elliptical (nearly circular) paths around the Solar System; keeping a certain, average distance from the Sun. — — Click the APPLE to return to the homepage. Water, Water, Everywhere… October 18, 2016 November 22, 2016 Dickie Murt. How are the aurorae caused? Commonly described as an “island of stars” in space, a galaxy is an immense grouping of stars that are bound together by gravity. So, elliptical ‘E7’ is more spread-out than elliptical ‘E4.’  Similarly, spiral ‘Sc’ is more spread-out than spiral ‘Sa.’. The Milky Way is safe for another 4 billion years, give or take a few! By contrast, a helium atom has two protons in its nucleus. One below, sundials are running this course a final time this year for final examination 2018... 2017 Dickie Murt I myself have seen it, and the one below state in circumstances. 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