One of the first most eminent poets to make use of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro, who can be called the father of the Urdu language. The Urdu writers also adopted the Persian forms and themes in their works. …Islām created a new language, Urdu (from Persian: Camp), based on Hindi; Urdu was the lingua franca of the army. Various theories have been given to explain it. Official language of Moghuls was Persian, logically this was written in Persian script. This map shows that Urdu is not spoken by people of any specific area in Pakistan (the former West Pakistan). noun) in the world. By the end of the thirteenth century, it was used among Muslim armies. This theory is difficult to accept because the author has offered too simple an explanation for the Urdu. Urdu language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-European family of languages. The History of the Urdu Language. Modern Standard Urdu, once commonly known as a variant of Hindustani (ہندوستانی), a colloquial language combining the modified Sanskrit words found in Hindi with words (لفظ/lafz, masc. Just like everything else in this world, there are some certain things that happened in Urdu language for the first time. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Urdu itself is a Turkish word that means army camp. 1975. This mixed speech was variously called Hindvi, Zaban-e-Hind, Hindi, Zaban-e-Delhi, Rekhta, Gujari, Dakkhani, Zaban-e-Urdu-e-Mualla, Zaban-e-Urdu, or just Urdu, literally ‘the language of the camp.’ Major Urdu writers continued to refer to it as Hindi or Hindvi until the beginning of the 19th century, although there is evidence that it was called Hindustani in the late 17th century. This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 01:04. History of Urdu language. Khan, M. H. 1969. One sound in the stops category, the glottal /q/, has also been retained from Perso-Arabic. In many writings only the verbs are in Urdu, the rest consisting of Persian constructions and vocabulary, and the themes of…. Alam, Muzaffar. I always thought that Urdu was the language of sub continent Muslims. It was only in 1837 that Persian was replaced as the official language of India. It was based on the language spoken in the region around Delhi, and it was heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian, as well as Turkish. History of Urdu A couple of weeks ago, there was a very interesting article in the Economic Times that gave the break up of languages spoken by the people of Pakistan. Urdu is the official language of Pakistan as well as Jammu and Kashmir in India. Language Distribution of Modern-day Pakistan. Ramkrishna Mukherjee (2018). It became a formal linguistic division when Pakistan and India separately gained independence. ", "The poisonous potency of script: Hindi and Urdu", ترتیب وڈیزائننگ ایم پی خاؿ اردولشکری زبان, Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Urdu&oldid=994302641, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Language articles without reference field, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. 1996. Urdu, distinguished from Hindi by its script and vocabulary, is … It’s about a thousand years old Ab’ul Hasan Yamīn al-Dīn Khusrow (better known as Amir Khusrow) is said to be the first Urdu poet and Khusrau’s poetry is still sung today at Sufi shrines throughout Pakistan. This work, published in Delhi in 1920, is a history of the Urdu language from its origins to the development of an Urdu literature. Its influence, however, does not compare with that…, Urdu, now the chief literary language of Muslim India and Pakistan, borrowed heavily from Persian literature during its classical period in the 18th century. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani. Efforts were also made to purify the language by excluding the unfamiliar words and expressions of the Deccani. Ohala, M. 1972. Urdu also retains a complete set of aspirated stops (sounds pronounced with a sudden release with an audible breath), a characteristic of Indo-Aryan, as well as retroflex stops. The origin of the Urdu language is obscure. Urdu does not retain the complete range of Perso-Arabic consonants, despite its heavy borrowing from that tradition. In M. G. Clyne (Ed.). Urdu is the main dialect used in political, religious, education, and media discourses. Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." pp. However, in 1952, when Pakistan declared Urdu its national language, it was hugely opposed by the people of East Pakistan (the Bangladeshi). The Muslim soldiers and people in Eastern Persia used it as an integrated communication tool during their subjugation of Ancient India. From the grammatical point of view, there is not much difference between Hindi and Urdu. Dua, Hans R. 1994b. Because of this, a sectarian divide was established. Updates? In Asher, 1994; pp. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. So in order to help you in checking your knowledge about this topic, given below is a online quiz about First in Urdu language history. Although both Urdu and Hindi typically mark the plural by changing the singular suffix -aa to -ee, Urdu uses -aat in some cases, such as kaagazaat ‘papers,’ jawaharaat ‘jewels,’ and makaanaat ‘houses.’ In addition, where Hindi and Urdu both use the suffix -ka ‘of’ in many constructions, Urdu marks the genitive ‘of’ with -e(e), as in subhe-azadi ‘the morning of freedom’ and khoon-e-jigar ‘the blood of heart.’. InshaAllah Khan is known as the second poet from Lucknow. Initially there was Urdu, which evolved during the time of Muslim Rule in India, as said in the army camps when people from all over India use to interact. So it sometimes becomes very difficult to grasp the true meaning and concept of spoken sentences. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Hindi and Urdu are closely related and they share similar grammar an… In literature, Urdu was usually used along side Persian. Hindi was used by Hindus and the Muslims used Urdu. 1998. Please ? It was between 1818 to 1905 that Urdu developed into a language of expression for religious, philosophic thoughts. Significant speech communities exist in the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States as well. Muslims ruled over India for about 1,000 years. It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the constitution of India. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Where is Urdu spoken? "SUBCRIBE" - "LIKE" - "COMMENT" For watching Our Latest Videos Click This link: https://goo.gl/1MKT8N Thanks For Watching Us. (Hindustani now refers to a simplified speech form that is the Indian subcontinent’s largest lingua franca.). Urdu Muhavare Kahawatain are usually called as Zarbul Imsaal. It came into existence in Central Asia around the 1600’s. Urdu language and literature facts and figures. The word ‘Urdu’ is derived from the Turkish word ‘ordu’ which means ‘army’ or ‘camp’. The largest number of sounds retained is among the spirants, a group of sounds uttered with a friction of breath against some part of the oral passage, in this case /f/, /z/, /zh/, /x/, and /g/. Phonologically, the Urdu sounds are the same as those of Hindi except for slight variations in short vowel allophones. Marginal and non-universal phonemes are in parentheses. The literary community in northwestern India protested the move and wanted the language to use the local Devanagari script. Urdu and Hindi share an Indo-Aryan base, but Urdu is associated with the Nastaliq script style of Persian calligraphy and reads right-to-left, whereas Hindi resembles Sanskrit and reads left-to-right. 221–. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. Notably, Urdu and Hindi are mutually intelligible. Description. However, it is the native language of less than 1% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir. 1554. "Tareekh-e-Islam" (History of Islam) is Written by Maulana Akbar Shah Najeebabadi. Azim, Anwar. An authentic Islamic history book complete part 1 in Urdu language. One distinction is that Urdu uses more Perso-Arabic prefixes and suffixes than Hindi; examples include the prefixes dar- ‘in,’ ba-/baa- ‘with,’ be-/bila-/la- ‘without,’ and bad- ‘ill, miss’ and the suffixes -dar ‘holder,’ -saz ‘maker’ (as in zinsaz ‘harness maker’), -khor ‘eater’ (as in muftkhor ‘free eater’), and -posh ‘cover’ (as in mez posh ‘table cover’). Dua, Hans R. 1992. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.). Urdu started developing in north India around Delhi in about the 12th century. 2000. Urdu is accepted by the Kashmiri Muslims, even though it’s considered to be a non-native dialect. Urdu is a living language which, according to estimates, is spoken by close … See more. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles). The word ‘ Urdu ‘ comes from Turkish word ‘ Ordu ‘ meaning ‘ Army ‘ or ‘Lashkar ‘. Global Voices, "Proposal to Encode the Kaithi Script in ISO/IEC 10646", "Urdu Bharti: नौकरी के लिए भटक रहे हैं 4 हजार उर्दू शिक्षक, कोर्ट कोर्ट खेल रही है सरकार. A majority of people living in Jammu and Kashmir use English or Urdu as a second language. Download PDF & Read books in parts and episodes for your convenience. History of the Urdu Language. Turks largely maintained contingents of Turks, Afghans and Indian coverts but keep them separate. But the most established theory relating the origination, evolution and development of Urdu language is that Urdu is a conglomeration of many different languages manly Arabic, Persian, Pashtu, Turkish, Hindi and some local dialects of India. Brijbhasha, though linguistically allied to the dialect spoken in the neighbourhood of Delhi, is quite different in construction and morphology. History The standard Urdu script is a modified version of the Perso-Arabic script and has its origins in 13th century Iran. It was called the literary standard of Hindi and became Bihar’s official language after it replaced Urdu in 1881. noun, plural: الفاظ/alfaaz) brought to India via Persian, Arabic, Portuguese, Turkish and other languages, is a language with one of the most fascinating and complex histories (تاریخ/taarikh, fem. The Comparative study of Urdu and Khowar. Omissions? Urdu Language History- In This Course We Will Discuss Urdu Language History Chapterwise , urdu zaban ki tareekh in urdu, history of urdu language and literature, urdu zaban ki ahmiyat It is the official state language of Pakistan and is also officially recognized, or “scheduled,” in the constitution of India. Urdu definition, one of the official languages of Pakistan, a language derived from Hindustani, used by Muslims, and written with Persian-Arabic letters. Urdu was believed to have developed in 11th century in the Delhi Sultanate, Urdu is evolved from Apabramsa of Shauraseni Prakrit, Urdu is a major form of Hindustani, The origin of the name Urdu is the Chagatai language 's word for army, urdu. Specifically, the Urdu language directly descends from the Hindustani language, though it is based originally on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi. Urdu developed in the 12th century ce from the regional Apabhramsha of northwestern India, serving as a linguistic modus vivendi after the Muslim conquest. After the conquest of Delhi by the Muslims, the Persian element was grafted which resulted to … Hindustani. Urdu shares its origins with Hindi, sometimes referred to as a ‘sister’ language of Urdu due to the similar grammar base that they share. It is closely related to the development of the Nastaʻliq style of Perso-Arabic script. Corrections? In. Literary Arabic, usually called Classical Arabic, is essentially the form of the language found in the Qurʾān, with some modifications necessary for its use in modern times; it is uniform throughout the Arab world. In Asher, 1994; pp. Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India during the Mughal rule. History stands as the most effective and valuable source of putting nation on the course of progress and prosperity and saving them from the path of disgrace and degradation. However Mughals mixed them to a great extent. Springer. 4863–4864. They share the same Indo-Aryan base and are so similar in phonology and grammar that they appear to be one language. It is the language that the Mughal and Sultans of Delhi used during their rule in Delhi. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language". Urdu is closely related to Hindi, a language that originated and developed in the Indian subcontinent. Urdu is spoken as a first language by nearly 70 million people and as a second language by more than 100 million people, predominantly in Pakistan and India. Some linguists have suggested that the earliest forms of Urdu evolved from the medieval (6th to 13th century) Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language that is also the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. In terms of lexicon, however, they have borrowed extensively from different sources—Urdu from Arabic and Persian, Hindi from Sanskrit—so they are usually treated as independent languages. Sameeksha Trust. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Urdu. The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India during the Mughal rule. Muhammad Husain Azad maintains that Brij Bhasha, a dialect of Western Hindi, is the basic language. It was a language that was widely used and understood by Muslims. Urdu language, member of the Indo-Aryan group within the Indo-European family of languages. Urdu Language History In Urdu- Read Complete history of urdu language , background and family of urdu language, urdu net syllabus,urdu language history in india, hindustani language, hindustani language … Urdu is spoken as a first language by nearly 70 million people and as a second language by more than 100 million people, predominantly in Pakistan and India. Understanding Social Dynamics in South Asia: Essays in Memory of Ramkrishna Mukherjee. Marginal and non-universal vowels are in parentheses. Urdu. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Urdu-language. Economic and Political Weekly. One of the most eminent earliest poets who made usage of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro who can be called the father of Urdu language. In literature, Urdu was generally used in conjunction with Persian. The Urdu language is an Indo-European language, stemming from the Khariboli branch of language. Thus we find that the Urdu language was enriched from gener­ation to generation and … Mughals recruited large numbers of Indian Muslims in their army. Urdu Muhavare Kahawatain (Urdu Idioms and Phrases) Like English idioms Urdu idioms also have a totally different apparent meaning. Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Now Urdu became popular and replaced Persian as the language of the educated masses. Arabic is the language of the Qurʾān (or Koran, the sacred book of Islam) and the religious language of all Muslims. Read History Books in Urdu online Free تاریخ کی کتابیں - Large collection of History Books of Pakistan, India, World, Wars & Islam in Urdu, written by famous Urdu writers. An Urdu translation of the Koran was made as late as 1791. Urdu has an extensive history and association with Muslims. English: This work, published in Delhi in 1920, is a history of the Urdu language from its origins to the development of an Urdu literature. See Article History. Urdu was used later for literature and at present is the mother tongue of most Indian Muslims and their brethren in Pakistan. Urdu and Hindi share an Indo-Aryan base, but Urdu is associated with the Nastaliq script style of Persian calligraphy and reads right-to-left, whereas Hindi resembles Sanskrit and reads left-to-right. Interestingly 48 % of the population speaks Punjabi while Urdu is spoken by only 8 %. Badshah Munir Bukhari National Language Authority Pakistan 2003. Urdu is one of the principal languages spoken in Jammu and Kashmir in India. Its first major poet was Amir Khosrow (1253–1325), who composed dohas (couplets), folk songs, and riddles in the newly formed speech, then called Hindvi. According to Muhammad Husain Azad, Urdu language was born as a result of grafting of Persian elements on the Brijbhash a, a dialect of western Hindi. 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