Indeed, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has reported that in 1969 the world suffered its first absolute decline in fisheries yield since 1950. More: Global Climate Change Facts Also, when it comes to socio-economic factors, the more the population grows, there is always the chance that there will be fewer opportunities to get a job and how that will reflect on the possible rise of inflation and the increase of government debts. As one example of diminishing returns, consider the problem of providing nonrenewable resources such as minerals and fossil fuels to a growing population, even at fixed levels of per capita consumption, As the richest supplies of these resources and those nearest to centers of use are consumed, we are obliged to use lower-grade ores, drill deeper, and extend our supply networks. Examples include corrections when the rapid growth may actually supply a population that wouldn't have existed to contribute otherwise. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. This rapid urbanization coupled with population growth is changing the landscape of human settlement, posing significant risks on living conditions, the environment, and development. The growth of the human population has impacted the planet and affected biodiversity. Apart from these we have explained the consequences of … It cannot be stated too forcefully that the developed countries (or, more accurately, the overdeveloped countries) are the principal culprits in the consumption and dispersion of the world’s nonrenewable resources (12) as well as in appropriating much more than their share of the world’s protein. Complacency concerning this component of man’s predicament is unjustified and counterproductive. We may be able to afford the technology to mine lower grade deposits when we have squandered the world’s rich ores, but the underdeveloped countries, as their needs grow and their means remain meager, will not be able to do so. In an agricultural or technological society, each human individual has a negative impact on his environment. In many cases the choice is not obvious, and in all cases there will be some environmental impact. It is expected to keep growing, and estimates have put the total population at 8.6 billion by mid-2030, 9.8 billion by mid-2050 and 11.2 billion by 2100. In a typical situation, this would yield doubled per capita costs, or quadrupled total costs (and probably energy consumption) in this sector for a doubling of population. One would expect water, soils, or the ability of the environment to absorb wastes to be the limiting resource in far more instances than land area.). There is a wide choice of weapons—from unstable plant monocultures and agricultural hazes to DDT, mercury, and thermonuclear bombs. When a population of students grows rapidly, it can lead to teacher shortages, lack of funding and overcrowded schools. About 40% of worldwide pregnancies are … Historically, human population control has been implemented with the goal of limiting the rate of population growth. However, this is not a problem that we seek to answer in the future, as the issues we mention here are, if not already present, then undoubtedly imminent. The relationship between population growth and economic development has been a recurrent theme in economic analysis since at least 1798 when Thomas Malthus famously argued that population growth would depress living standards in the long run. Not mentioned here are the effects of global warming, which will surely worsen due to the increased carbon footprint. II. We call this notion “the Netherlands fallacy.” The Netherlands actually requires large chunks of the earth’s resources and vast areas of land not within its borders to maintain itself. Factors affecting population growth The population growth is determined mainly by birth rate, death rate, and migration patterns (immigration and emigration). Large fires every year, massive earthquakes, tsunamis, and hurricanes grow stronger each year. We are not suggesting here that electric cars, or nuclear power plants, or substitutes for phosphates are inherently bad. The net result has been modest 2.1% in­crease in per capita income. Some of these are viral. The environment, culture, politics, food supply, and demand, the undermined ability of some of the natural resources to replenish - everything is affected by the growth of population. For example, our first generation of smog-control devices increased emissions of oxides of nitrogen while reducing those of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. 2515 words (10 pages) Essay. Ageing populations are another element to the multi-faceted implications of demographic population change, and pose challenges of their own. For instance, it is easy to mistake changes in the composition of resource demand or environmental impact for absolute per capita increases, and thus to underestimate the role of the population multiplier. We propose to deal with this and several related misconceptions here, before persistent and unrebutted repetition entrenches them in the public mind—if not the scientific literature. The third individual partial impact relates to the effect of population growth on food demand. We will not deal in detail with the best example of the global nature and interconnections of population resource and environmental problems—namely, the problems involved in feeding a world in which 10 to 20 million people starve to death annually (9), and in which the population is growing by some 70 million people per year. Population growth is a factor that affects our ecosystem, in the broadest sense of this term. This behavior is in large part inconsistent with American rhetoric about “developing” the countries of the Third World. Because of this consumption, and because of the enormous negative impact on the global environment accompanying it, the population growth in these countries must be regarded as the most serious in the world today. If there are too many people, even the most wisely managed technology will not keep the environment from being overstressed. Population growth is placing stress on the natural environment, creating scarcity, and leading to problems such as deforestation and global warming. Surely, then, we can anticipate that supplying food, fiber, and metals for a population even larger than today’s will have a profound (and destabilizing) effect on the global ecosystem under any set of technological assumptions. Areas that are uninhabited or sparsely populated today are presumably that way because they are deficient in some of the requisite factors. This is referred to as overpopulation. The Asian influenza epidemic of 1968 killed relatively few people only because the virus happened to be nonfatal to people in otherwise good health, not because of public health measures. All these activities increase our per capita use of energy and our per capita impact on the environment. Consider municipal sewage, for example. Unless we can find another Earth where we can move half of our 7 billion population, it’s very obvious that we are using up our finite supply of resources. For instance, as cities push out into farmland, air pollution increasingly becomes a mixture of agricultural chemicals with power plant and automobile effluents. Population growth is less important a factor here: income growth and the technological factor play a much greater role in this case than in the preceding one. This is not to say that important gains have not been made through the application of technology to agriculture in the poor countries, or that further technological advances are not worth seeking. In under developed countries, rapid growth of population diminishes the availability of capital per head which reduces the productivity of its labour force. The stress on our environment is massive, and has been increasing as the population on Earth has grown larger. Thus, in spite of plan­ning, India has failed to achieve a satisfactory growth rate. The most important way to combat a steady rise in the population is education and empowerment. Human population growth is a concern for the whole world as it has a toll on the environment.. Questions should be directed to joan@mahbonline.org. The countries suffering with heavy population explosion consider it as a threat to their economy and well-being. Similar considerations reveal the imprudence of citing, say, aluminum consumption to show that population growth is an “unimportant” factor in resource use. The angles from which you can approach this problem are almost endless. In so arguing, he appears to make two unfounded assumptions. The consequences of such an event are severe and major. Developing nations like India and some African countries tend to consume much less energy but add to the population crisis. In the last 50 years, the number of people on this planet has more than doubled. Currently, the Earth’s population is growing by 60,000 people every eight hours -- that’s two children born every second somewhere around the globe. While the effects of population growth on per capita economic growth may be quite variable, productivity growth is unequivocally related to the “economic component” of growth that Piketty points to as the source of improvements in the standard of living. The world is growing at an amazing rate. The effect of growing population will be an increased demand for resources and space. Moreover, many aspects of our technological fixes, such as synthetic organic pesticides and inorganic nitrogen fertilizers, have created vast environmental problems which seem certain to erode global productivity and ecosystem stability (26). Source: MPHOnline.org Our discussion centers around five theorems which we believe are demonstrably true and which provide a framework for realistic analysis: We now examine these theorems in some detail. These results underscore long-standing suspicions that population growth, translated through the inevitable uneven distribution into physical crowding, will tend to make the solution of all of our problems more difficult. Now consider a situation in which the limited capacity of the environment to absorb abuse requires that we hold man’s impact in some sector constant as population doubles. The first of these is the depletion of resources. But if the volume of sewage is such that its nutrient content creates a serious eutrophication problem (as is the case in the United States today), or if supply considerations dictate the reuse of sewage water for industry, agriculture, or groundwater recharge, advanced treatment is necessary. 1126 Words 5 Pages. Download as PDF. Essay on Population Growth and Its Effects – Essay 2 (300 Words) Introduction. Population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.Global human population growth amounts to around 83 million annually, or 1.1% per year. But population increased at the rate of 2.2%. One of the commonest errors made by the uninitiated is to assume that population density (people per square mile) is the critical measure of overpopulation or underpopulation. Far deadlier viruses, which easily could be scourges without precedent in the population at large, have on more than one occasion been confined to research workers largely by good luck [for example, the Marburg virus incident of 1967 (22) and the Lassa fever incident of 1970 (21, 23)]. You can view samples of our professional work here. Low per capita income For a balanced per capita income, the economic and population growth must go hand in hand. Naturally, we do not dispute that smog and most other familiar urban ills are serious problems, or that they are related to population distribution. As one example, consider the oversimplified but instructive situation in which each person in the population has links with every other person—roads, telephone lines, and so forth. If population size were reduced and per capita consumption remained the same (or increased), we would still quickly run out of vital, high-grade resources or generate conflicts over diminishing supplies. Diminishing returns are also operative in increasing food production to meet the needs of growing populations. It produces energy equivalent to some 20 million metric tons of coal and consumes the equivalent of over 47 million metric tons (14). More than half of the worlds population is living in cities and this is increasing at rate of 1.5 percent. Population size influences per capita impact in ways other than diminishing returns. Most of the environmental damage being seen in the last fifty-odd years is because of the growing number of pe… The need for food, space and raw materials has resulted in destruction of habitats and pollution. And our distaste for lung diseases apparently induced by sulfur dioxide inclines us to accept the hazards of radioactive waste disposal, fuel reprocessing, routine low-level emissions of radiation, and an apparently small but finite risk of catastrophic accidents associated with nuclear fission power plants. In terms of the problem of feeding the world, for example, technological fixes suffer from limitations in scale, lead time, and cost (24). Some negative effects of population growth are insecurity, crime, unemployment, underdevelopment, inequitable sharing of resources, and increased pollution of the environment. displaying the fact that impact can increase faster than linearly with population. All too many people think in terms of national parks and trout streams when they say “environment.” For this reason many of the suppressed people of our nation consider ecology to be just one more “racist shuck” (18). As the population increases, the demand for food can only grow bigger. Consider, for example, the recent article by Coale (1), in which he disparages the role of U.S. population growth in environmental problems by noting that since 1940 “population has increased by 50 percent, but per capita use of electricity has been multiplied several times.” This argument contains both the fallacies to which we have just referred. In this context, population control is obviously not a panacea—it is necessary but not alone sufficient to see us through the crisis. Such savings, if available at all, would apply in the case of our sewage example to a change in the amount of effluent to be handled at an installation of a given type. Second, population growth puts a disproportionate drain on the very financial resources needed to ’combat its symptoms. First, a closer examination of very rapid increases in many kinds of consumption shows that these changes reflect a shift among alternatives within a larger (and much more slowly growing) category. What will we do if we continue to grow at exponential rates? In this context, a national policy of limiting population growth probably has a limited effect. The former requires disproportionate energy use in obtaining and distributing water, fertilizer, and pesticides. Contraception is when you intentionally want to stop pregnancy. 2. The MAHB Blog is a venture of the Millennium Alliance for Humanity and the Biosphere. Some of these are viral. Moving people to more “habitable” areas, such as the central valley of California or, indeed, most suburbs, exacerbates another serious problem— the paving-over of prime farmland. It is to be emphasized that the possible existence of “economies of scale” does not invalidate these arguments. The “simplest assumption” is not valid, however, and this is the second flaw in Coale’s example (and in his thesis). For most technologies, the United States is already more than populous enough to achieve such economies and is doing so. Government officials who focus on growth may find that they suffer the consequences of poor planning. Deforestation can happen on an even larger scale, and then we talk about desertification. As a final example of the need to view “environment” broadly, note that human beings live in an epidemiological environment which deteriorates with crowding and malnutrition—both of which increase with population growth. In addition, of course, many of the most serious environmental problems are essentially independent of the way in which population is distributed. The factors such as population growth, environmental degradations, poverty and effects of climate change are been explored. While people are moving from place to place more and more, the world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history. The theory was simple: given that there is a fixed quantity of land, population growth will eventually reduce the amount of resources that each individual can consume, ultimately … As noted earlier, the services of capital and labor do not explain economic growth in its entirety. Pitfalls abound in the interpretation of manifest increases in the total impact I. Another phenomenon capable of causing near-discontinuities is the synergism. Recent laboratory studies on human beings support the anecdotal evidence that crowding may increase aggressiveness in human males (20). Birth control and family planning is the first step that needs to be taken to ensure a gradual decline in the growth rate of the population. Similarly, as the richest fisheries stocks are depleted, the yield per unit effort drops, and more and more energy per capita is required to maintain the supply (5). In the period from the 1950s to the 1980s, concerns about global population growth and its effects on poverty, environmental degradation, and political stability led to efforts to reduce population growth rates. Thus the 760 percent increase in electricity consumption from 1940 to 1969 (4) occurred in large part because the electrical component of the energy budget was (and is) increasing much faster than the budget itself. To ignore population today because the problem is a tough one is to commit ourselves to even gloomier prospects 20 years hence, when most of the “easy” means to reduce per capita impact on the environment will have been exhausted. John P. Holdren, Paul R. Ehrlich | October 22, 2019 | Leave a Comment This proves only that their economists are as shortsighted as ours. Encouraging that trend hardly seems wise. In many cases, the remedy for such deficiencies—for example, the provision of water and power to the wastelands of central Nevada—would be extraordinarily expensive in dollars, energy, and resources and would probably create environmental havoc. This means per capita effectiveness of pollution control in this sector must double (that is, effluent per person must be halved). A second source of the fisheries decline is, of course, overexploitation of fisheries by the developed countries. Overpopulation is the existence of more people than the available … Nor is there any reason to believe that modern medicine has made widespread plague impossible (21). One of the factors responsible for environment degradation is population growth or population density. They are too little, too late, and too expensive, or they have sociological costs which hobble their effectiveness (25). It also imports all of its cotton, 77 percent of its wool, and all of its iron ore, antimony, bauxite, chromium, copper, gold, lead, magnesite, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, silver, tin, tungsten, vanadium, zinc, phosphate rock (fertilizer), potash (fertilizer), asbestos, and diamonds. The cost ranges from two to four times as much as for secondary treatment (17 cents per 1000 gallons for carbon absorption; 34 cents per 1000 gallons for disinfection to yield a potable supply). In connection with the five theorems elaborated here, we have dealt at length with the notion that population growth in industrial nations such as the United States is a minor factor, safely ignored. In particular, population density plays the most important role in shaping the socio-economic environment. This study explores the effects of population growth on economic development in Rwanda over the period of 1974–2013. He points to the existence of urban problems such as smog in Sydney, Australia, “even though the total population of Australia is about 12 million in an area 80 percent as big as the United States,” as evidence that environmental problems are unrelated to population size. Historically, this has been made possible by limiting the birth rate, usually by government mandate. The population increased from 3 billion to 7 billion in a fairly short time, and this fact had immense effects on the world we live in. In the case of partly renewable resources such as water (which is effectively nonrenewable when groundwater supplies are mined at rates far exceeding natural recharge), per capita costs and environmental impact escalate dramatically when the human population demands more than is locally available. The effects of population growth are varied and vast. Essay on Population Growth and Its Effects – Essay 2 (300 Words) Introduction. The population boom that has overwhelmed the system results from improvement in medical care at both ends of the life spectrum—according to World Bank data, infant mortality has fallen from 113 per 1,000 births in 1980 to 17.9 per 1,000 in 2012, and life expectancy has grown from 48 … Problems of population size and growth, resource utilization and depletion, and environmental deterioration must be considered jointly and on a global basis. Once a stock is depleted it may not recover—it may be nonrenewable. Not only is there a connection between population size and per capita damage to the environment, but the cost of maintaining environmental quality at a given level escalates disproportionately as population size increases. With this alone comes a massive risk of a higher number of people living on either bad nutrition habits or dying from hunger. Moreover, it is often assumed that population size and per capita impact are independent variables, when in fact they are not. 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